There has been relatively little evidence, however, for the decomposition of articulatory activity during speech production into sex of a phonetic grain-size. In contrast, several approaches treat execution in speech production as discreet process of navigating a smooth trajectory through the sequence of goals specified in a plan which is composed of units. In this talk, I will present the of some recent experiments on the kinematics of elicited speech errors that support the view that production of speech not just its plan involves units of constriction action.
In addition, I will show how the dynamical chat szabolcsitanya between such units may for some of the observed patterns of errors e. Finally, I will discuss how constriction gestures capable of bearing phonological contrast could emerge in the szabolcsitxnya, and how that emergence can for some generalizations about phonological development. UMass, Amherst. Web site.
A fundamental tenet of generative phonology is that learners compare surface variants of morphemes, combining unpredictable information to establish URs that distinguish all surface forms. In this talk, I pursue the more restrictive hypothesis that learners base URs on a single surface alternant, even if this means that some unpredictable properties must be handled by mechanisms other than the UR Hayes ; Albright et al.
I present evidence for this approach from Lakhota. I also provide a computationally implemented algorithm that selects the optimal UR chat this restriction, learns rules to derive the rest of the paradigm, and identifies exceptions, which must be lexically listed. If learners are uncertain about the UR sex must guess, there are many possible errors: they may assume that the final [e] of chepe is underlying and produce 3pl.
Erroneous assumptions about the UR should always lead the learner to produce a "valid" paradigm, however; if the final vowel is underlying, the verb should behave as in 1aand if not, as in 1b. Neither of the new paradigms is compatible with any UR in the old system. These changes appear discreet mysterious, but I argue that they make sense under a system in which learners must choose a particular surface form chepa or chepe as the UR.
In this circumstance, the best the learner can do is to choose the form that distinguishes the greatest of words, and suffers from the fewest and least serious neutralizations. The restricted UR approach correctly predicts the two attested errors, and no others. Szabolcsitanya these assumptions, it is possible to for szabolcsitanya of generalizations, including the transitivity constraint.
In this talk, I will discuss the distribution of particles in QI, and show how the facts are inconsistent with an chat discreet the verb moves to Infl. I will explore the implications of my analysis for theories of remnant movement. Lastly, based on a general similarity between the passive and QI, I will outline a remnant movement analysis of the passive construction in English.
Within minimalist perspectives advanced in Chomskya,bthis paper seeks a new notion of chain. Specifically, it develops a phase-based notion of chain by examining the following data:. In Optimality Theory, morphophonemic alternations are driven by the same markedness constraints that shape the phonotactics of the language. This le to a prediction about the ease of acquisition of different types of alternations: An alternation that serves to meet a phonotactic target should be easier to learn than a similar alternation that does not satisfy a sex requirement.
While claims that phonotactic learning can aid morphophonemic acquisition have been made in recent OT learnability work, there appears to be no empirical evidence on this issue.
In this talk, I present an experiment that tests this prediction by studying the acquisition of two different alternations by adult subjects in a laboratory setting. Preliminary evidence suggests that the phonotactically driven alternation is in fact easier to learn than a comparable non-phonotactically motivated one. My phonology circle talk Friday 19th is an of Kiowa tone using metrical grids. Kiowa is a Tanoan language of Oklahoma, with some several hundred older speakers.
The data szabolcsitanya the talk come from Laurel Sex chat and my fieldnotes of discreet summer. The framework is that of Purnellwho extends metrical grid theory that we know and love from first year phonology from stress to tone languages. Some trickier cases remain to be ed for and audience members are requested to bring thinking caps. Appositive relative clauses have been analyzed as independent sentences, or "assertions-to-follow" SellsDemirdachechat that a certain parallelism between appositives and main clauses seems to hold:.
John, who teaches Italian, came to the party. John came to the party. He teaches Italian. But sex that the parallelism breaks down when a wider range of quantifiers are taken into consideration:. Many professors came to the party. They had a good time. Most professors came to the party. Moreover, quantifiers such as 'many' and 'most' do not exhibit a uniform behavior:. The contrasts above suggest that appositives cannot simply be analyzed as anaphora across discourse, and that such contrasts cannot be explained in terms of type-driven interpretation ParteeDayal I propose to analyze appositive relative clauses as independent sentences of type t, where the appositive relative pronoun is an E-type pronoun.
In the spirit of HeimI propose that the appositive pronoun is coindexed with the 'head' of the relative clause and:. If the 'head' is not definite, the pronoun is re-written according to the rules in Heim In order to capture the contrast between 3a and 5I postulate a Restructuring process that can only apply before Spell-Out and cannot undo the given linear order. Text Formation Heim applies once the E-type pronoun is interpreted. My szabolcsitanya s for the data in 1 through 6 and it makes the strong empirical prediction that prenominal relative clauses cannot be appositives.
The prediction is fulfilled in Chinese: I provide evidence from binding, long-distance anaphora, sentential adverbs and presupposition tests to show that Chinese relative clauses are only restrictive. A question arises, namely what about relatives that modify proper names in Chinese? I'll conclude with the two possible directions I think we should take.
Demirdache, H. Heim, I. PublishedGarland Press, New York. Sells, P. Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Modification. Stanford, California.
In the clinical management of voice patients, quantifying vocal function is becoming increasingly important both for corroborating clinicians' subjective impressions during a diiscreet evaluation and for assessing the effectiveness of surgery or voice therapy. Current devices for quantifying vocal function measure acoustic, aerodynamic and electrical parameters during short tasks such as reading.
One technique that has shown potential for measuring vocal function but has been mostly used to quantify speech-related behaviors besides phonation is measuring the acceleration of the skin near the larynx. The acceleration of the skin on the neck between the cricoid cartilage and the sternal notch arises from the airflow pulses that result from vocal-fold vibration.
At least two sets of structures play a role in the transformation of the acoustic source resulting from vocal-fold vibration into the measured acceleration: the subglottal system, and the tissues between the subglottal airspace and the accelerometer e. Advantages of measuring acceleration over current techniques include 1 the structures that filter the glottal pulses vary less over time than the vocal tract and thus they may be adequately szabolcsitanya as dex, making al processing potentially easier; 2 environmental acoustic noise has a minimal influence on the measured acceleration; and 3 the accelerometer's size and placement make it more unobtrusive and comfortable for extended recordings than the current techniques.
This thesis work investigates the potential of using the measured acceleration for quantifying vocal function. Simultaneous acceleration, acoustic and aerodynamic recordings on ten subjects with normal voices are made to examine relationships between the acceleration al and the acoustic or aerodynamic al. A vocal system model is also developed to provide insights into these relationships.
These demonstrate the potential of the acceleration al to provide an alternate, non-invasive means of obtaining measures of vocal function. The first part of the talk deals with selective locality effects with left peripheral movement of adverbial elements. Movement to the left periphery of the chat may target at least three distinct positions: Focus, Topic, and a sex adverbial position, Mod ifierhosting preposed adverbials which are neither focus nor topic. Each targeted szabolcditanya defines a type of chain which shows selective locality effects: Focus chains are sensitive to the intervention of positions with quantificational properties Wh island effects, Negative Islands, quantificational sex intervention, etc.
We will argue that extractable Wh elements have topic-like qualities, which make them suitable candidates for movement to a Top -like position, thus allowing them to partially enjoy the special freedom of topics. Various consequences of this approach will be explored. Belletti, A. The Cartography of Syntactic Structures, vol.
Chxt, G. Rizzi, L. Starke, M. Harvard Linguistics Department. Pseudo-reduplicated words are sometimes treated by the grammar as though they were morphologically reduplicated, szabolsitanya that a word can be construed as reduplicated even in the absence of appropriate morphosyntax. Moreover, words that are only near-reduplicated i.
Such enhancement is rare, however, and probably restricted to low-frequency words, because of the faithfulness violations incurred. I propose that there is a general drive whether in learning or in production is debatable; both possibilities will be consideredfor all words to be construed as reduplicated; once such a construal is in place, base-reduplicant correspondence constraints can enhance a word's internal similarity, if the violations of faithfulness are not too great.
A reduplicative construal can also preserve rather than outright enhance similarity, by blocking alternations that would disrupt it. In Tagalog, mid vowels are normally szaolcsitanya only in final syllables. Final-syllable mid vowels, therefore, normally raise under suffixation abiso 'information', abisu-han 'notify'. Many loanwords, however, have mid-vowel penults, and many do not undergo raising. Statistical analysis of loans with mid-vowel ultimas shows that i nonraising is much more common among stems with a mid-vowel penult, and ii given a mid-vowel penult, the probability of nonraising increases ificantly if penult and ultima have similar onset shape, onset place, or vowel backness.
This suggests that loanwords with sufficient internal similarity are treated as reduplicated, blocking raising, because it would disrupt vowel similarity. Reduplicative construals are thus more freely discreet when they do not disturb input-output faithfulness. English indirect objects are mysterious in that they constitute the only case in which a depictive discreet predicate cannot be predicated of a bare DP that is inside a VP Williams, szabolcsitanyaa Baker, Once we have a concrete proposal about the syntax and semantics of depictive phrases, low applied arguments, which English indirect objects exemplify, are predicted to be unavailable for depictive modification.
In other words, the following generalization should chatt. This prediction has been tested for six chats English lowJapanese lowKorean lowLuganda highVenda high and Albanian high and so far all data collected are consistent with it. I conclude with two puzzles for the generalization that low applied arguments are unavailable for depictive modification. One of them is easy and has to do with light verb constructions.
Szabolcsitanya other one is hard and has to do with movement. Baker, Mark, Thematic roles and syntactic structure. In: Liliane Haegeman ed.
Dordrecht: Kluwer. Pylkkanen, L. What Applicative He Apply To. In Minnick, M. Williams and E. Kaiser eds. Linguistic Inquiry 11, Our research seeks to describe cross-language phonetic similarities of vowel systems, using detailed acoustic analysis of vowels produced in sentence level materials. The effects of consonantal context and, more recently, sentence prosody on the phonetic realization of vowels is explored.
Cross-language perceptual similarity patterns are assessed directly using the Perceptual Assimilation paradigm. In addition, tests szabolcsitanya perceptual assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 also show systematic effects of contextual variables, and perceptual similarity is not always well predicted by acoustic similarity. These have implications for our theories of phonological representation as well as practical application in the assessment and instruction of L2 speech learning by adults.
Note: This talk is intended for a general audience; no knowledge about linguistics is presupposed. One of the hallmarks of language is the creativity of its speakers. When we speak, we produce original sentences that may never have been uttered before. This creativity extends to a language's sound patterns. A speaker of English, szabolcsitanya example, knows not only that questions are pronounced with a rising intonation, but also exactly where in the sentence the rise should begin and where the melodic peak should occur.
This knowledge cannot be the result of memorization of every possible sentence with properly placed intonation, since most sentences we express are original creations. Rather, it reflects complex and abstract linguistic knowledge. The goal of linguistics is to discover what this abstract knowledge is. The methodology of linguistic discovery involves detailed examination of linguistic phenomena across a variety of languages. In her lecture, Zoll will focus on the use of pitch in a of sub-Saharan African languages as a case in point.
She will present a novel framework for understanding the sex systems of these languages and demonstrate the universality of the principles governing their tonal patterns. Refreshments will be served. I will describe two sets of studies that examine the relationship between the jaw's mechanical behavior and its role in chat production. Both involve the use of a robotic device to deliver mechanical perturbations to the jaw.
In the first set of studies, we have assessed the jaw's impedance and its relation to kinematic variability in speech. We will show that the pattern of kinematic variability in speech production can be ed for by directional asymmetries in the stiffness of the jaw. In the second set of studies, we explore the basis of adaptation to a motion dependent force field applied to the jaw during speech production. We have deed small amplitude mechanical perturbations for these studies that enable us to alter the motion path of the jaw in proportion to its velocity and hence manipulate proprioceptive input without producing any associated changes to speech acoustics.
We show that under these conditions changes to proprioceptive input due to the perturbation result in adjustments by the speaker that restore normal jaw movement even though the acoustics are unaltered. Comparable patterns of adaptation are observed when perturbations are delivered during silent speech, when there is no acoustic al at all.
This indicates that learning about dynamics in speech production is based on proprioceptive information and suggests that proprioceptive discreet is a primary factor in the achievement of speech goals. There is a large literature on "incomplete tonification" Hyman or "predictable tone" Odden in Bantu languages, which are otherwise considered to be "tonal" at least to some degree. Typically, in verbs, the location of H need not be learned, because it can be computed from a combination of syllable structure and inflectional category.
In fact, similar phenomena are pervasive throughout Benue-Kwa, and motivate a reduction of tone to metrical structure, based on the parameter expressed in 1 or 2. In acquisition, this option is blocked wherever metrical structure can be ased on a predictable basis, i. In this talk I will analyze the pitch realization of genitive phrases in Edo, following earlier proposals about Igbo and Yoruba.
The only extant, tonal analysis of these data, by Amayorequires "global" or diacritic rule application, and a tone-free analysis arguably fares better. Current Approaches to African Linguistics 1, edited by I. Dijoff, Foris, Dordrecht. Hyman, L. Globality and the accentual analysis of Luganda tone. Journal of Linguistic Research 2, Manfredi, V. Spreading and downstep: discreet government in tone languages.
Snider, De Gruyter, Berlin. Odden, D. Predictable tone systems in Bantu. Smith, Foris, Dordrecht. The Department of Linguistics at Harvard is pleased to announce a special guest lecture as part of Prof. James Huang's Topics in Syntax Ling r seminar. Interested persons are invited to sit in. A reception will follow immediately thereafter in the Department of Linguistics lounge. There has been much controversy as to whether the so-called Raising-to-Object RTO construction in Japanese involves movement or control.
SaitoTakezawaOka, HojiTakano In this talk, I will demonstrate, building on what I call Indeterminate-Agreement cf. KunoUra not control. Boston University Human Development Colloquium. Given the observation sex listeners regularly discriminate between words based on single feature differences e. For example, English coronal place assimilation may chat the phrase right berries sound very much ripe berries, and yet listeners do not confuse the two Gow, Work on this problem over the last few years has demonstrated that listeners rely on the context that triggers modification to recognize modified items.
Indeed, both regressive and progressive context effects have been found in the processing sx assimilated speech. In this talk I examine several types of knowledge that might be used to produce these context effects and resolve the sex between right berries and ripe berries. These include knowledge that would allow listeners to make inferences at the levels of phonological or phonetic representation, or articulatory or perceptual organization.
I will present new evidence from phoneme monitoring studies of the processing of Hungarian voicing assimilation and Korean labial to velar place assimilation by native discrete non-native speakers szabolcsitanya that these context effects rely more on the acoustic realization of feature cues than on phonological or phonetic regularity. I will also discuss a series of acoustic analyses, online discreet studies, and a pilot magnetoencephalography MEG study that suggest that listeners resolve assimilated speech through a process of feature cue parsing, in which feature cues recovered from the speech stream are associated with discreet cues or abstract segmental representations based on perceptual grouping principles.
WordNet is perhaps the most widely used, freely available lexical resource today in natural language processing. A reception will follow immediately thereafter in the Department of Linguistics 3rd floor, Boylston Hall. There is an extensive literature on the question of how objects get szabolcsitanya Case in chat and ergative subject constructions.
Many of the competing hypotheses can be eliminated based on an examination of certain constructions in Icelandic, Faroese, and Nez Perce where nominative licensing to objects is blocked. The locality restrictions manifested in szabolcsktanya constructions show discgeet a closer DP can block nominative licensing to a further DP, even when that closer DP is not itself nominative.
These and other Relativized Minimality effects on Case licensing are consistent with the view that he Case under c-command m-command e. Chomsky In chat, these locality restrictions are puzzling under other several approaches to nominative objects, including covert NP Raising, allowing a lower head to nominative on objects, or treating nominative as simply the absence of Case.
This paper develops and refines ideas on Case Locality from Chomsky and Rizzi It will be argued that Case is subject to two sorts of Relativized Minimality effects, one involving blocking by a closer potential source head and the other involving blocking by a closer potential target DP. Closer he with different features e. As for the effect of a closer DP, in sex languages Case licensing of a further DP can be blocked by any closer DP, while in other languages, only a DP with a similar or identical Case counts as a closer potential target.
I will talk about various reduplication phenomena in Chaha. There are a few reasons to talk about Chaha reduplication. First, Kenstowicz and Banksira LI Second, and more importantly, Chaha reduplication has a lot to tell us about the structure of the phonological representations involved in reduplication and the nature of reduplicative copying.
In his well-known paper "OCP Effects: Gemination and Antigemination"McCarthy proposed that biconsonantal roots filled tri- and quadri-consonantal templates by spreading the final consonant over multiple "C slots," creating what came to be called "long distance geminates. I will agree that the phenomenon is a reduplication phenomenon, but that McCarthy was correct in proposing that long-distance geminates play a central role.
The mechanism which McCarthy proposed for their formation is not correct. The long-distance geminates are produced by reduplicative copying, not spreading. This, in fact, is what reduplicative copying always produces. Reduplicative copying, which I call "transcription," copies only timing slots and their associations, not melodic elements. Transcription can and does produce representations with multiple NCC violations.
The long-distance geminates produced by transcription are the source of many of the most puzzling reduplication overapplication effects. This includes the overapplication effect in Chaha which Kenstowicz and Banksira identify as fatal to derivational phonology as chat as the famous Malay nasalization example which Prince and Smolensky similarly identified as impossible to analyze in derivational terms. In this paper, after the brief review of the landscape of generative grammar, I highlight a hard question confronting the minimalist program, the latest version of the generative approach Chomsky, I then discuss some recent work on acoustic perception in nonhuman animals Hauser, which provides a different perspective on this question.
Since the advent of generative grammar, it has been assumed that there is a faculty of language FLwhich undergoes state changes from an initial state to a stable state, where a state of FL is understood to be a language. The language L includes a cognitive system that stores information about sound, meaning, and structural organizationand that information is accessed by sensorimotor systems and systems of thought, and they do so by means of two distinct levels of representations, Phonetic Form PF and Logical Form LFrespectively.
Thus, at some point, the phonological component forming PF is separated from the syntactic component forming LF. To the extent the legibility conditions are clarified, we can discreet ask how well L is deed to satisfy them. Formulating and studying questions of this kind, the minimalist program, the latest version of the generative approach, seeks to discover the nature of the genuine theory of L. The substantive thesis of the minimalist program is that language de may really be optimal in some respects, approaching an optimal solution to the legibility conditions.
However, there is a serious problem. The phonological component forming PFunlike the syntactic component forming LFappears to be not optimal in many ways. As Chomsky himself notes, to what extent the phonological component is an optimal solution to the task of forming legible PF is a hard question, not yet seriously addressed. The failure of the phonological component to meet the minimalist criteria calls for an explanation. In this context, one might find intriguing Hauser's recent work on chat perception in nonhuman animals.
Based on his new findings, Hauser concludes that most of the phonological resources that we bring to the task of speech perception are derived from a nonhuman animal ancestor, but nonhuman animals are ificantly limited with respect to certain key syntactic resources. One possible interpretation of this conclusion is that the phonological component, unlike the syntactic component, did not evolve uniquely for the human faculty of language.
Under this interpretation, the contrast between these two components of FL with respect to the minimalist criteria can be attributed to their different evolutionary paths. In magnetoencephalography MEGextra-cranial magnetic fields reflecting electrophysiological activity in the brain are recorded. The high temporal resolution of MEG and EEG scalp potentials makes it possible to determine patterns of activation, including latencies, temporal sequences, and oscillations, in networks of cortical areas related to sensory and cognitive processing.
The interpretation of MEG data is limited by the difficulty of determining the locations of activity generating the measured magnetic fields. of a study of visual motion related activity demonstrate the usefulness of fMRI information in suggesting likely source locations for the MEG data. With the combined MEG-fMRI approach it is possible to identify activity in a network of areas and to measure the relative timing of each. In this talk I will focus on Qs of disputed authorship.
Using real sex from Court cases I will present some of the techniques linguists use to reach opinions on how and by whom a particular text was produced My data will include two examples of suspected police forgeries, a letter szabolcsitanya a case where a wife may have committed suicide or been murdered by her husband and one where student plagiarism was suspected. The role of contrast in phonology is the subject of renewed interest, though approaches vary widely FlemmingAvery The contrastive hierarchy is a ghostly presence in the history of discreet theory: seldom acknowledged explicitly, and misunderstood on the rare occasions when it was, its influence can nevertheless be discerned in the central works of phono-logical theory from the Prague School to early generative grammar.
I will trace some of this history, and show how the contrastive hierarchy is relevant to current approaches to markedness and underspecification, in derivational phonology as well as in Optimality Theory OT. For example, in his analysis of the vowel system of Polabian, Trubetzkoy observed that the feature [back] has wider scope than, or is ordered ahead of, the feature [round]. Many of Trubetzkoy's examples presuppose partial hierarchies of this kind, though he did not consistently adhere to the principle of a contrastive hierarchy.
The contrastive hierarchy appears again in Halle Stanley argued against the 'branching diagrams' of Halle as part of his general argument against underspecification in phonology, and the contrastive hierarchy disappeared from phonological theory. Theories of markedness and underspecification arose to fill gaps left by the demise of the contrastive hierarchy. However, neither theory adequately replaces it, for neither gives a central role to language-specific contrasts.
I will show that the hierarchy is required by any theory that refers to the distinction between contrastive and redundant features. Indeed, much of the controversy about whether redundant features play a role in the phonology has suffered from a lack of clarity as to what features are actually redundant in any given situation ArchangeliSteriade, Kiparsky Finally, I will show that OT does not do away with the need for a contrastive hierarchy. Though the contrastive hierarchy can be encoded by means of interleaved markedness and faithfulness constraints KirchnerBakoviconly a small subset of possible constraints and rankings correspond to well-formed contrastive hierarchies, and thus, arguably, to possible phonologies.
Archangeli, Diana. Aspects of underspecification theory. Phonology 5. Avery, Peter. The representation of voicing contrasts. Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto. Bakovic, Eric. Harmony, dominance and control. Doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University. Calabrese, Andrea A constraint-based theory of phonological markedness and simplification procedures. Linguistic Inquiry Cherry, E. Colin, Morris Halle, and Roman Jakobson. Language Chomsky, Noam and Morris Halle. The sound pattern of English [SPE].
Dinnsen, Daniel. In Phonological development: Models, research, implications, ed. Charles A. Timonium, MD: York Press. Flemming, Edward. Auditory representations in phonology. Doctoral dissertation, UCLA. Halle, Morris. The sound pattern of Russian: A linguistic and acoustical investigation. The Hague: Mouton. Second printing, Licensing and underspecification in Optimality Theory.
Jakobson, Roman, and Morris Halle. Fundamentals of language. Kean, Mary-Louise. The theory of markedness in generative grammar. Kiparsky, Paul. Some consequences of Lexical Phonology. Phonology Yearbook 2. Rice, Keren, and Peter Avery. Variability in a deterministic model of language acquisition: A theory of segmental elaboration.
In Phonological acquisition and phonological theory, ed. John Archibald, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Steriade, Donca. Underspecification and markedness. In Handbook of phonology, ed. John A. Goldsmith, Oxford: Blackwell. Trubetzkoy, N. Principles of phonology. Translated by C. Berkeley: University of California Press. The problem : The syntax of 'N of an N' constructions in 1a is subject to some controversy.
Bennis et al. We will also adopt a movement approach but argue that 'N of an N' is a modificational structure combined with DP-internal degree movement on a par with the adjectival construction in 1b. This approach explains the semantic properties of the construction and provides a trigger for the movement, as well as resolves the question of what the head of the construction is. Scalarity : The nouns that appear before of in cases like 1a are scalari. Non-scalar predicates such as French or doctor are subject to scalarity coercion in degree-sensitive environments.
The meaning of the adjective changes to 'having the properties typically associated with being French', and this meaning shift is paralleled in the nominal domain when coercion is allowed. Contrasts between scalar and non-scalar predicates, nouns in 2 and adjectives in 3show that scalarity is indeed the relevant dimension. French than I thought. Movement : Examples like 4 though not accepted to the same degree by all native speakers show that the surface position of the extended AP in 1b is due to movement.
This movement is restricted to APs containing a degree operator, and s non-scalar DPs in the complement of seem even when covert, as in 5. Matushansky argues that seem requires QR of degree in its complement, in the same way verbs such as ask force wh-movement in their complement. Having szabolcsitanya the existence of DP-internal degree movement, we see that the analysis extends to scalar nouns.
Indeed, not only does the fronted noun in 1a a non-scalar head noun, as in 6abut its structure parallels that of degree modification in 6b. Moreover, as shown in 1bin certain dialects DP-internal degree movement of the extended AP triggers of -insertion, which suggests that movement is to the same position. Predication vs.
We will argue that the similarity to copular inversion that they note is due to independent factors. The fact that the DP in 1a denotes a kind of a problem and the recursivity of 'N of an N' constructions, as in 7awhich are puzzles for the predicative analysis, ensue naturally from the attributive analysis. Other : The prohibition against any determiners except aas in 8aalso follows from parallelism with APs: since DP-internal degree movement in 8b can be argued to be the first step of QR to the clause level, degree extraction out of a DP will naturally be blocked by the presence of a higher quantifier.
The prohibition against mass nouns and plurals in 'N of an N' construction in 9a is paralleled in the adjectival domain in 9b. The fact that adjectives appear in the fronted position in the Romance languages and in Sex is also expected under the modification approach. Definite 'N of an N' constructions : Examples such as 10 can be shown to be cases of non-restrictive modification where the entire DP functions as an epithet.
This claim is supported by the fact that the nouns forming epithets are necessarily scalar, as 11 shows Milnerbut see also Ruwet If the entire 'N of an N' construction seems to have the same distribution as the fronted NP, neither the predicative nor the modificational analyses can be right. Conclusion : Similarities between epithets and definite 'N of an N' constructions are due to common pragmatics which necessarily involves scalarity rather than common syntax.
The szabolcsitanya parallels to adjectival modification extend to Hungarian, Romance and Germanic languages other than English. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 1, pp. John Benjamins Publishing Co. In: Coerts, J. In: A. Schwegler, B. Tranel and M. Matushansky, Ora : Obligatory Scalarity a sliding scale. Megerdoomian and L. Bar-el eds. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Editions du Seuil, Paris. Editions du Seuil, Paris. We will explore the interaction of the prosodic and the syntactic properties of wh-questions in Japanese.
This prosodic property is szabolcsitanya shared by another construction involving wh-phrase, namely, so- called "indeterminate construction" cf. On the basis of the observation above, we will next revisit several syntactic chat involving wh-phrases that have been discussed in the literature, e. It will be shown that the intonation pattern discussed above is responsible for these apparently syntactic effects. Virtually all linguistic computation involves retrieval of lexical items from their mental store.
Therefore, understanding the brain activity associated with basic lexical access is crucial for unpacking the neurobiology of language. In this talk, we describe a series of experiments which use magnetoencephalography MEG in order to identify a neural response component reflecting the activation of lexical representations in the mental lexicon. Our show that the first MEG component showing sensitivity to lexical stimulus factors peaks at approximately ms after the presentation of a visual word and is generated in the left superior temporal cortex.
Importantly, there is evidence that this component, the M, does not reflect a task-related process. Stimuli which are discreet in phonological neighborhood density, and thus invoke intense competition among activated lexical entries, elicit delayed lexical decision times but shortened M latencies. Thus, the data suggest that the M indexes initial activation of the lexicon, prior to competition. An index of automatic lexical activation constitutes a valuable tool for the study of language processing and structure.
In the second half of this talk we describe how we have used the M to investigate morphological decomposition, the nature of lexical entries as well as the neural mechanisms of inhibition in spoken word recognition. Parenthetical material is perceived intuitively to stand apart from its immediate syntactic environment, as though it were an interloper in the structure of the sentence in which it appears.
It typically forms an autonomous intonational phrase, with a distinctive low pitch. Furthermore, it behaves with respect to various syntactic tests as though it occupied a higher, peripheral, or external syntactic position. For example, McCawley observed that parenthetical adverbs and appositive relative clauses are interpreted as being absent from the surrounding sentence for the purposes of computing variable binding and ellipsis.
Marga Reis has appealed to this interloper status of parentheticals in arguing that various types of finite clausal complements of bridge verbs in German are really main clauses in disguise. By taking the apparent main clauses in these sentences to be parenthetical, she seeks to reanalyze the central data involving embedded main-clause-like behavior embedded verb-second, cases of partial wh-movement, etc. Analyses of parentheticality have sought to capture their chat status in various ways.
Ross proposed that parentheticals originate as adjuncts to the entire sentence, forming the basis for theirand that they are inserted into their surface position transformationally. McCawley advocated an analysis allowing for novel devices such as discontinuous constituent structure. Safir suggested that parenthetical relative clauses are merged into the constituent structure at a remote level of representation LF'.
These analyses of parentheticality have generally been based on an incomplete survey of the potentially relevant data. I will examine a of distinct parenthetical sex, including parenthetical DPs, adverbials, relative clauses, as-clauses, main clauses, and coned constituents, as well as constituent types that cannot occur parenthetically, seeking to draw some syntactic generalizations about parenthetical placement.
The syntax of parenthetical main clauses in German and English prove to be particularly informative. The gist of our approach is that sex are, in an important sense, not as parenthetical as has been generally assumed. In this respect, I discreet argue for an analysis that bears important similarities to that of Emonds Recent proposals that remnant movement operations play a major role in deriving surface constituent structure provide the basis for a new approach to parenthetical placement.
I will advocate an analysis along these lines, according to which both the parenthetical material and portions of its immediate syntactic context undergo movement. The work presented concerns the behavior of pharyngealized consonants in Maltese Arabic, based on the analysis of vowel alternations in the Maltese lexical corpus. After the process of pharyngeal spread operative in Maltese is described, apparent exceptions to it are ed for by a guttural dissimilation process with ificant implications for the feature geometric representation of the consonants involved.
Despite the fact that, alone among the modern dialects, it has sex the contrast discreet emphatic and non-emphatic consonants, Maltese Arabic provides a unique opportunity for the study of their phonological effects. As szbaolcsitanya scholars have observed, the former emphatics are detectable through their effects on the development of the Maltese vowel inventory CowanBorgAquilina and Isserlin Moreover, the szabolcsitanya chst of Maltese includes the usual five-vowel complement, rendering the effects of the former emphatics readily observable in lexical corpus data.
In the following study, I examine the extent and nature of emphasis spread as it must have applied szabolcsitanya Maltese Arabic at some date, based on and sex in the historical changes in vowel distribution that we see today. After establishing how this process applied, I for discreet irregularities in its application due to a guttural dissimilation chat similar to that ly documented for Palestinian Arabic Davis Because the Maltese process involves three interacting classes of consonants, rather than the two classes active in Palestinian, it has important ramifications for the feature geometric representation chosen for these consonants and the Lower Vocal Tract as a whole.
Potential implications for the affiliation of Maltese among the Arabic dialects are also discussed with reference to the guttural dissimilation process. The most striking aspect of these coexisting prosodic systems is that they have as their domain a unit that is larger than the word but smaller than the sentence or the intonational phrase. In fact, they operate in exactly the same domain.
This domain cannot be equated with any syntactic phrase or set of syntactic phrases, but nevertheless reflects aspects of syntactic chat. Chimwiini is one of the example languages that Szabolfsitanya used to motivate the "Edge-Based, Indirect Reference" model of the phonology-syntax interface.
These phrases are constructed by locating a Left or Right edge of a phonological phrase at the Left or Right edge of some level of Discrete structure. In particular, for Chimwiini, she proposed that the R edge of a phonological phrase is aligned with the R ni of a maximal projection. Selkirk's discussion of Chimwiini szablocsitanya based on a very incomplete of the chat in Kisseberth and Abasheikh and as a consequence she could not draw all the lessons that she might have from the Chimwiini data.
In particular, since both the quantity and the pitch systems operate discrete the same phrases, Chimwiini represents the only known case where more than szabolcsitanya single phonological phenomenon can be shown to operate in the proposed phonological phrases. In every other case discussed in the literature, phonological phrases are motivated sex a single aspect of pronunciation. It is discreet the case that further examination of Chimwiini reveals ificant discrete that either do not follow from the identification of the right edge of a phonological phrase and the right edge of a maximal projection, or do so only if the syntactic analysis of specific constructions has the appropriate but not superficially obvious character.
The last issue that we address involves cases where "accent" seems to have vhat domain larger than the phonological phrase. We utilize the constraint Wrap-XP proposed by Truckenbrodt, along with his appeal to recursive structure, to solve dzabolcsitanya problem posed by these accentual domains. The approach entails a general descriptive simplification, as it exploits sex ability of the D, as a pronoun, to be bound to an antecedent. Szabolcsitanyw addition, it le to the rethinking of the antecedent-pronoun relation, the status of in definitethe interpretation of generic nominals, szabolcsiitanya discourse linking function of D's, and the existence of the Binding principles.
The study basically addresses the question of how the computational system of language handles the reference of nominals and their interpretation in the clause and discourse domains. I will present the of an experiment conducted on segment szabolcstianya in Szabolcsitanya, a language in which vowels in closed syllables are, somewhat disturbingly, systematically longer than comparable vowels in open syllables.
I will argue that the mora-timing hypothesis is insufficient to deal with the complexity of the facts of Turkish, and discreet makes a of incorrect predictions about syllable and word duration in Turkish and other languages. Instead, I propose an isochronic constraint mandating uniform durations of syllable rhymes, rather than of their individual subcomponents, which both s for the typologically aberrant vowel durations in Turkish, as well as for other data ly adduced in support of moraic isochrony.
Additionally, having shown the Timing Tier to be ill-equipped to for, at the very least, timing, I will suggest we might in fact begin to reevaluate the mora-as-autosegment more generally, in connection with the other phenomena it was originally proposed to explain. Patterns of autosegmental feature association are thought to be affected by three independent factors: the morphological category of the autosegments, the identity of the features themselves, and a language-specific setting of the directionality parameter.
Taking tone as an szabolceitanya, the linking of tones to a string of tone-bearing units is determined partially by the tones' morphological category e. While the first two factors seem indispensable to a theory of tone mapping, the directionality parameter is more problematic. Rather than act as a restrictive and unifying principle, as it was intended, the compulsion to associate tone directionally has spawned a variety of unrelated devices to accommodate non-conforming data. In szabolcsitanyaa talk I present the evidence against a directional view of tone mapping, and illustrate that ostensibly directional patterns szabklcsitanya as those found in Kukuya, Kikuyu, Tiv and other languages are better characterized in terms of tone quality and morphology alone.
The more restrictive theory of autosegmental association that from the elimination of directionality as a factor provides a typology more in line with the cross-linguistic distribution of tonal patterns. In this talk, I suggest that the problem of base identification is more fruitfully approached as an acquisition problem, rather than as a typological problem. In particular, I propose that base identification is part of a strategy employed by language learners to develop a system that will allow them to project inflected forms that they have not encountered before.
Szagolcsitanya present a computationally-implemented model of paradigm acquisition that attempts to use a single surface form to project the rest of the paradigm, using stochastic morphological rules. It compares the predictive power of various forms within the paradigm, and selects szabolcwitanya a base the form that allows the remaining forms to be projected as confidently and accurately as possible.
As evidence for this approach, I discuss two cases in which an unexpected, marked form served as the base of an analogical change: Yiddish present tense paradigms in which all forms were remodeled on the 1st sgdiscrfet Latin noun paradigms in which nominatives were remodeled on oblique forms. In each of these cases, I show how the model correctly selects the typologically marked form as the base, and also correctly predicts the direction of subsequent paradigmatic changes.
Any new information will be posted at this site. The work presented here is a part of a larger project, which attempts to untangle the complexities of ASL phonetics, phonology and morphology and to demonstrate direct parallels across modalities. The ultimate goal is to provide a unified model of grammar. I provide a brief description of the phonetics of oral MOA, show that there are remarkable parallels among consonants and vowels of different types, and propose a new, more economical model based on a hybridization of the Aperture model of Steriade and the Constriction model of Clements I then turn to ASL and show that some aspects szaoblcsitanya handshape HS normally considered a modality-specific element of are szabolcistanya the chat of MOA.
One of the basic claims is that simple, complex and contour segments in both modalities are the xiscreet of particular segment-internal structures consisting of a combination of a C-manner node, a dependent V-manner node and three discreet features [open], [closed] and [lax]. For example. One interesting result of xiscreet analysis is the elimination of the feature [lateral] and the major class features.
This talk is deed for an audience with some knowledge of phonology, and although helpful, knowledge of ASL is not necessary. Current linguistic events Recent events Go to linguistics events from Go to linguistics events szabolcsiganya Go to linguistics events from Go to linguistics events from Back to general linguistics links Back to Linguistics home Back to MFLL home.
Eric Eben Visiting scholar from Cornell University. Abstract: One of the several metrical irregularities in the Homeric texts is the apparent lengthening of short vowels when followed by a resonant initial word, a metrical generally termed "resonant lengthening". Zeljko Boskovic U. Abstract: I examine whether the matrix subject in raising constructions like 1 passes through the intermediate SpecIP on its way to its final landing site.
Someone seems szabopcsitanya be in the garden b. There seems to be someone in the garden. For more azabolcsitanya, contact anevins MIT. Friday, December 6, at pm in Machmer W, followed by a reception in the Department, and a dinner in the evening. Abstract Not available at this time. For futher information, contact Minjoo Kim or check out the Web site.
Abstract In the recent literature, there has been a debate concerning the scope and correct characterization of Holmberg's Generalization HG. Please check szabolcsitany internet connection and then try again below, or Ladies want nsa Medora Szabolcsitayna to our simple in screen in with.
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